29th of October 2014

 

Thomas Runge and Hans Moenninghoff

 

Memorandum about Contract basis, responsibilities and flow of finances with the project “Water for Kibakwe”

 

 

Content:

Starting out situation:
Contractual basis for the project
Organizational structure of the project
Who gets money for what?
How much water we will have in the future?
The founding of the COWSO
What are the costs for water in the future

 

 

Starting out situation:

 

Within the framework of the 25 year church partnership between the Lutheran Church District of Hannover, Germany and the Lutheran Church District of Wotta, in the year 2012 Pastor Alex Msaka and the head of the Secondary School of Kibakwe, Sajigwa Nikupala and others visited the village of Eldagsen, where we live, 30 km south of Hannover. They told us about the big problems the people of Kibakwe have to get enough drinking water and Thomas and Hans decided to initiate a project “Water for Kibakwe”.

 

Hans initiated a donation campaign in which about 200 people and companies in the Hannover Region donated money for this project. Thomas Runge managed to get a very generous support for the project from the Swiss company Georg Fischer, where he works. Furthermore, significant contributions have been made by two public sector authorities in Germany.

 

No donations of money but a lot of work have been received from the church for this project. Pastor Alex Msaka carries out coordination work in Kibakwe and the church administration in Germany contributes their time by managing the finances - neither the church in Germany not Pastor Msaka receive any money for this work.

Contractual basis for the project

 

The project has four partner:

the Kibakwe Village Council
the Church Community of Eldagsen/Germany
the Church Community of Kibakwe in the Diocese of Dodoma
the Council of the Mpwapwa-District

 

The responsibilities of each of the partners is fixed in writing in an agreement which was signed on 19th of May 2014. The most important paragraphs in this agreement are as follows:

Limited by the total sum of the donations and grants collected for the project, the Church Community of Eldagsen will pay Tanzanian companies to survey and drill the wells to get the water detailed above and pay for the design of the construction of the necessary infrastructure (pumps, electrical power connections, intermediate storage tanks, water distribution network) and an accompanying consultancy and education program
As the project arose of a partnership of the church community of Kibakwe with the church community of Eldagsen, District Pastor of Church Community in Wotta will be the local coordinator of this project.
The Church Community of Kibakwe will be the owner of the new wells and if needed of a new built water tower and a new intermediate tank. The Church Community gives all water from the wells to COWSO. COWSO pays all operating costs (electricity, personnel, etc.) and provide financial reserves for major operational and maintenance work and replacement investments.
The Village of Kibakwe will support the project by providing existing distribution network and if it is suitable for it the existing elevated tank and the buffer tank for this project. New parts of the water distribution network will be mainly be laid and/or installed in public areas.
The church community of Eldagsen will optimize existing distribution network and if possible existing storage tanks, build about 10 public water Kiosks and connect public buildings in close cooperation with the village government and only, if the village agrees with the plans.

 

Note on item 4 of the partnership agreement: In the end, only one new well was drilled (and not two or more wells)

 

As the church community of Kibakwe is part of the Diocese of Dodoma and can only act under the auspices of the Diocese, a second agreement was drawn up between the Diocese of Dodoma and the Church Community of Eldagsen/Germany and signed on the 14th. of December 2013. The text passages above have the same content in the contract with the Diocese. Additional important points are as follows:

The Diocese will support the project in close cooperation with the church district of Wotta and the Church Community of Kibakwe. After finishing construction of the wells and the new water towers and intermediate tanks which may be needed, they will then be donated to the Diocese who will be the new owner

Pastor Msaka will coordinate the decision processes within the village community („Water Project Team“) and the „Community Water and Sanitation Organisation“ (COWSO) expected to be established in Kibakwe.

The wells will be drilled at the locations which are considered to be particularly suitable according to the hydro-geological report from the company Masochi Ltd.. If these locations do not already belong to the Diocese, the plots of land will be purchased by the diocese after receiving written approval from the Church Community of Eldagsen and – if necessary – from the village government. The Church Community of Eldagsen will then pay for the plots of land directly to the previous plot owner. All related land ownership document will be available at the Office of the District Pastor.
The water from this project will be made available to all inhabitants of Kibakwe. The Diocese will cooperate closely with the political community of Kibakwe to construct and operate the water distribution network, which will mainly be laid and/or installed in public areas.

 

Note on item 5 of the agreement with the diocese: The informal “project water team” only met once and, contrary to the agreement, did not deliver any final minutes for this meeting. After the meeting, Pastor Msaka did not coordinate any further work of the “project water team” to discuss and decide important things in the project. So we abandoned the idea of a “project water team” during our visit in October 2014.

In addition, Pastor Msaka was not able to coordinate the founding of COWSO, since legally its founding must be organized by the district.

 

 

And there is a third agreement: between the Council of the Mpwapwa-District and the Church Community Eldagsen about integration of the “District well” drilled by the district in 2013 into the project. There it is written:

If the pump test is successful, the Church Community of Eldagsen will finish the well by planning, building and financing.
After finishing the project, the borehole and all above mentioned equipment and pipe-system will be merged under the ownership of Kibakwe Village Council. The well and the equipment and the pipe-system will be run by a COWSO in a connected pile system for all parts of Kibakwe.

 

Organizational structure of the project

 

In Germany, Hans Mönninghoff is the coordinator of the project and he organises the communication with Thomas Runge and the chairman of the parish council of Eldagsen, Uwe Jacob and with all other supporter in Germany. Pastor Alex Msaka is the local coordinator of the project in Tanzania and he should do this in close cooperation with the chairman of the village council Seth Senyagwa and the district, since the whole distribution net, the spring and the district well are in the ownership of the village and the state. During our visit in May 2014, we made an agreement with Pastor Msaka and Mr. Senyagwa that the teacher Nickson Tuja is trusted by both of them and should coordinate the technical details of the project.

 

The village council and especially the water committee is responsible for the existing distribution network. So we in the project and especially Nickson Tuja will cooperate with the water committee in all questions about repairing and extending the network until the COWSO is founded and functioning. The water committee should tell Mr. Tuja which work they want to do to repair the existing network and which materials they need to do this (see also item 4.b)

 

 

Who gets money for what?

 

The Church Community of Eldagsen/Germany pays for all construction work for the water project until the existing budget is finished. The money is paid directly from Germany to the executing company Andy Construction Ltd. (managing director Charly Tarimo).

 

The following items were also / will also be paid by us:

 

Costs of materials for repair work on the existing water network, done by the local water committee of the village of Kibakwe. The committee checks what materials are needed and passes this information to Nickson Tuja, who organises the purchases. Pastor Alex has already received 320,000 TSh from us to finance the materials and he will pay for this and give us the invoices / receipts. We may be able to pay additional money for materials, if necessary and useful and if it is affordable within our budget.
The receipt for 320.000 TSh specifies for “maintenance costs”. This may be a misunderstanding, as in the future we only pay for needed material. From May to July of 2014, we paid 180,000 TSh to workers of the water committee to clean the 3 water tanks and to do some other work. In the meeting with the water committee on the 8th of October, we decided that we will not pay for labour costs for the water committee any longer. We know that the village council gets a monthly water fee from water consumers and the village has employees in the water committee to maintain and repair the existing network.
Apart from this, we pay a small amount of money to our two consultants Michael Onesimo and Hidde Bekaan and we pay a small allowance for the employees of the district council and for the work of Nickson Tuja.
We will also pay the costs to establish COWSO until it has its own income from the water provision fees next year. In the past, we paid eating and drinking costs for the COWSO seminars as well, but these costs will no longer be paid by us in future since the participants should have a personal own interest that the water distribution system is well organised in the future.

 

The project receives technical support from various people in the Hannover region, for example from Pastor Riemer who is our Kishuaeli translator. All participant in Germany work without any payment and only the costs of travelling to Tanzania are financed from the project budget.

 

How much water we will have in the future?

 

With the information we have at present, the new well at the church should produce about 75 m³ water daily and the district well in Kikulunge could produce about 25 to 40 m³. Recently we installed a water meter into the pipeline, coming from the spring and soon we will know, how much water is coming from there. In the moment we think that is will be more than 100 m³ also in the dry season.

 

So in the future Kibakwe has no water quantity problem, but the water system in Kibakwe has two problems:

The distribution network has a lot of leaks. The water committee did not look closely enough at this problem in the past and has not had enough resources to maintain the network.
An unfair distribution of the water. In our last visit in the dry season in October, we saw on the one hand people waiting for hours for some water from the public tap stands, and on the other hand wonderful green private irrigated gardens.

Both problems can be solved by:

 

The founding of the COWSO

 

The role of COWSO is described very clearly in the agreement signed by all project partners in May 2014 and we see no necessity to change anything in this connection:

A „Community Water and Sanitation Organisation“(COWSO) will be founded to run the wells, the pipe from the mountain and all the infrastructure. It is highly recommended that COWSO seeks the broader involvement of the village council, the church community of Kibakwe, Mpwapwa District Council and Kibakwe stakeholders. Through the COWSO, the village council will ensure that the water is fairly distributed among all people of Kibakwe.
To be able to check that no water is leaking out of the pipes and that all customers are paying for the service to bring the water to them, it is necessary to install water meters at the wells, at the pipe from the mountain, at all of the water kiosks and at water feeds to public buildings. Each place where water is consumed must have a water meter which is read regularly by COWSO employees

 

The role of COWSO is also specified in the contract between the Dioceses and the Church Community of Eldagsen:

The Diocese will support establishment and strengthening of the COWSO in Kibakwe, which will be responsible for operating and regulating the existing spring, the new wells and management of the water distribution network.

 

 

What are the costs for water in the future?

 

The agreement of the four partner have a clear ruling concerning to this question:

The water will be sold to the costumers at a price which is sufficient to cover the operating costs (electricity, personnel, etc.) and provide financial reserves for major operational and maintenance work and replacement investments. The water usage fees at the start of the project will be agreed mutually between the political community, (and the district; that was forgotten in the agreement), the Diocese and the Church Community of Eldagsen. If it is necessary later to adjust the water fees, this will be decided by the COWSO

 

COWSO is responsible for operating the “church well” and the “district well” and the pipeline from the spring. Included in operating is that COWSO will pay for the electricity for the pumps and the maintenance of the well, the pump infrastructure and the pipeline from the spring. (And if necessary COWSO has to pay taxes to the state, as all utilities have to pay).

 

The agreement describes clearly that the consumers will pay a water usage fee and not a water fee. Since all running costs are paid by COWSO, the Village Council, the district and the church community of Kibakwe cannot earn money by selling the water from the two wells and the spring to COWSO. COWSO must get the water from them without charge and the consumers do not pay for the water itself but for the costs of fetching and distributing the water.

 

 

 

 

 07.05.2014

Agreement

 

between

 

the Kibakwe Village Council (referred to as „the Village“ in the following)

represented by Chairperson of the Village council of Kibakwe

and

 

the Church Community St. Alexandri Eldagsen

Kirchplatz 1, 31832 Springe-Eldagsen, Germany

(referred to as „the Church Community of Eldagsen“ in the following)

represented by the Parish Council

and

 

the Church Community in Kibakwe

represented by the District Pastor, Church Community in Kibakwe

and

 

the Council of the Mpwapwa-District

represented by the District Executive Director

 

 

About the project partnership „Water for Kibakwe“

 

The Church Community of Kibakwe and the Church Community of Eldagsen (South of Hannover in Germany) have had an ongoing partnership for many years. Inhabitants of Kibakwe who visited Germany within the framework of this partnership reported in 2012 about major problems to get enough drinking water. This led to the formation of an initiative in the Hanover region to help Kibakwe with the water problem. This resulted in the founding of the project „Water for Kibakwe“. Up to now, nearly 200 individuals and companies in Germany have provided donations to this project and three institutions have agreed to provide support. Implementing this project, the following agreement has been reached between the Village of Kibakwe and the Church Community of Eldagsen:

 

  1. The aim of the project is to be able to get enough water for the people in Kibakwe, even during the dry period. The plan is to be able to provide each of the approximately 10,000 inhabitants with up to 20 litres of water a day, consisting of drinking water for the people, distributed by “water-kiosks”, water for public buildings (schools, medical clinic, etc.) and water for livestock rearing and vegetable gardening.

 

  1. Limited by the total sum of the donations and grants collected for the project, the Church Community of Eldagsen will pay Tanzanian companies to survey and drill the wells to get the water detailed above and pay for the design of the construction of the necessary infrastructure (pumps, electrical power connections, intermediate storage tanks, water distribution network) and an accompanying consultancy and education program. The engagement of the Church Community of Eldagsen in this project will terminate when the construction work is finished and the training and consultancy programme has been completed. The project coordinators in Germany are the engineers Hans Mönninghoff and Thomas Runge, who will also be available as consultants after the construction work is completed.

 

  1. As the project arose of a partnership of the church community of Kibakwe with the church community of Eldagsen, District Pastor of Church Community in Wotta will be the local coordinator of this project. He will coordinate the decision processes within the village community („Water Project Team“). In collaboration with the village government, the Church Community of Kibakwe is expected to coordinate establishment of the Community Water and Sanitation Organisation“ (COWSO) expected to be established in Kibakwe. The District Pastor is the local contact person for the companies carrying out the construction work.

 

  1. The Church Community of Kibakwe will be the owner of the new wells and if needed of a new built water tower and a new intermediate tank. The Church Community gives all water from the wells to COWSO. COWSO pays all operating costs (electricity, personnel, etc.) and provide financial reserves for major operational and maintenance work and replacement investments.

 

  1. The Village of Kibakwe will support the project by providing existing distribution network and if it is suitable for it the existing elevated tank and the buffer tank for this project. New parts of the water distribution network will be mainly be laid and/or installed in public areas.

 

  1. The church community of Eldagsen will optimize existing distribution network and if possible existing storage tanks, build about 10 public water Kiosks and connect public buildings in close cooperation with the village government and only, if the village agrees with the plans. The Church Community of Eldagsen will coordinate all of the planning steps and construction contracts with the village by under coordination of engineers Hans Moenninghoff and Thomas Runge. Rural Water Department under Mpwapwa District Council is highly invited to participate in the design work.

 

  1. The contact person for the village will be the Chairperson of the Village Council of Kibakwe. Copies of all documents to this project will be sent from the Church Community of Eldagsen to the village while the second copies to Mpwapwa District Council. The Church Community of Eldagsen will make all payments for materials and work done directly to the construction companies, suppliers of materials and services. After completing construction of the optimizing current distribution network and building water kiosks, all this will be handled to village government.

 

  1. The water from this project will be made available to all inhabitants of Kibakwe. To run the wells, the pipe from the mountain and all the infrastructure a Community Water and Sanitation Organisation“ (COWSO) will be founded as provided under its establishing Water Resource Act and corresponding by-laws. It is highly recommended that COWSO seek broader involvement of the village council, the church community of Kibakwe, Mpwapwa District Council and Kibakwe stakeholders. Through COWSO, village council will ensure that the water is fairly distributed among all people of Kibakwe.

 

  1. To be able to check that no water is leaking out of the pipes and that all customers are paying for the service to bring the water to them, it is necessary to install water meters at the wells, at the pipe from the mountain, at all of the water kiosks and at water feeds to public buildings. Each place where water is consumed must have a water meter which is read regularly by COWSO employees. A record is kept of all consumers and  

 

<< Neues Textfeld >>

Description of the project;

 

The following paper is as of 07.11.2013 and a lot of things have changed till today. For actuell information please look the memorandum above

 

Report based on a feasibility study made in March 2013 and an extensive planning visit in October 2013

 

Contents:

 

  1. Introduction and technical aspects

1.1.         Current availability of water

1.2.         Existing public water distribution network

1.3.         Planned supply of more drinking water

1.4.         Future distribution network including expected water quantities

 

  1. Social, legal and financial aspects

2.1.         Project initiator and sources of finance

2.2.         Church partnership with Kibakwe

2.3.         Political situation

2.4.         Relevant local authorities

2.5.         Local organisational structure during the planning and construction phases

2.6.         Organisational structure and ongoing financing during the operative phase

2.7.         Consultancy and training programme

 

  1. Future schedules and deadlines

 

 

  1. Introduction and technical aspects

 

The village of Kibakwe, approx. 400 km West of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania, has a population of 9,500 in the main conurbation. The population is increasing due to the high birth rate. In addition, the political municipality of Kibakwe includes three outlying communities with an additional 10,000 inhabitants. The main village is situated in a semi-arid basin (semi-desert) at the edge of a mountain range. The people live from extensive agriculture, cattle ranging and service functions for a market centre for the surrounding smaller communities. Some of the men work at diamond mines in the vicinity of Mpwapwa.

 

For a long time now, water for Kibakwe has been supplied by an approx. 4 km long pipe from a spring capture in the mountains which lies approx. 250 Meter higher than the main village. According to the local water committee, the pipe is currently able to supply approx. 40,000 litres of water per day during the dry period (there aren’t any water meters fitted). 50-70 % of this water is for human consumption, 20-40% is for livestock watering and approx. 10% is for agricultural irrigation (the figures stated by different members of the water committee vary considerably). Accordingly, on average there are only 2-3 litres water of drinking water quality available from the public supply network per person per day during the dry period. In addition, due to the unequal distribution (discussed in more detail later), many women and children need to travel up to 10 hours each day – partly during darkness - in order to collect the minimum daily requirements of water with drinkable quality.

 

In addition to the public water supply, there are two privately operated wells which meet the requirements of two Catholic institutions, several small wells operated by private persons who sell the water at a very high price that the normal population cannot afford and trenches dug in the riverbed which collect water of dubious hygienic quality and run dry in the dry season. These additional sources of water have not been counted when planning the future public drinking water supply system.

 

The conclusion of an on-site inspection was it would not be possible to increase the output of the existing public supply water from the spring in the mountain with an acceptable amount of effort. The spring capture and the galvanised steel pipe which was installed around 1990 is in a relatively good condition and the losses due to leaks are small. (nonetheless, the project plan should include a small financial position to optimise this pipe). The possibility of increasing the output of the spring capture using technical measures is very uncertain and would be very difficult to accomplish due to the rough terrain in the mountains.

 

Accordingly, the cause of the water shortage is that too little water is available because of:

  • Increased agricultural activities up-stream in Lwihomelo and other villages near the spring in Mwanawotta
  • Environmental depletion such as tree cutting, primitive farming and traditional livestock keeping
  • The capacity of the existing springs has dropped due to a decrease in the rainfall as a result of climate change;
  • The population has increased considerably during recent decades due to the high birth rate (and will continue to grow).

 

Without additional supplies of drinking water for instance, some of the population from the Kibakwe sub-region will need to migrate to another region!

 

If the cooperation with the inhabitants of the main village runs well and the project is successful, it is hoped later to be able to find enough drinking water for the three outlying villages as well. The project will then be called „Water for 20,000 people in Kibakwe“

 

The availability of water in Kibakwe village is expected to contribute to other improvements such as health, women and children development. If children missed school, for instance to assist families to obtain water, success of the project will contribute to lower school drop outs and improved academic achievements in school. Women will have more time for other socio-economic activities since time spent fetching water would be reduced significantly. The Water for Kibakwe Project is more than about water. It is about socio-economic development of Kibakwe, the sub-region and the whole district.

 

 

1.2.        Existing water distribution network

 

Drawings, technical descriptions and water quantity data for the existing distribution network are apparently not available in Kibakwe. The two existing water towers are no longer in operation and the water from the springs flows without pressure to approx. 10 public standpipes with taps in the village, some of which have a rather unprofessional construction. There appears to be a very unequal water distribution at present. Whereas children of the primary school and whole-day secondary school receive no water at all because the school buildings are higher and the static pressure in the pipe is insufficient to reach the schools, a livestock watering station is being supplied with water in the valley. The steel pipe which is laid in the ground has been opened up at several places and water is being taken from the hole. Whereas children and women normally need to wait several hours in the queue, even late in the evening, to be able to fill their commonly used 20 litres canisters („bucket“), several land owners have amply irrigated gardens and several farmers have quite a lot of cattle which are clearly well supplied with water.

 

To aid the following planning stages, we have made a digital map of Kibakwe and the water pipe from the mountain with the help of satellite imagery from Microsoft Bing Maps and the Open-Street-Map system. We also made GPS measurements on site in Kibakwe using the OSM Osmand+ App on an Android smartphone. As a result of this work, Kibakwe and a few of the surrounding roads and points of interest such as the medical clinic are now visible for the first time ever on an Internet map which is accessible worldwide (see the attached map and www.openstreetmap.org, search for Kibakwe). During the Water for Kibakwe Project, as a sub-project we want to improve the Kibakwe map in OSM and add more details.

 

 1.3.        Planned future supply drinking water

 

According to the Tanzanian experts Mrs. Mcharo (Wami Ruvu Basin Office), Mr. Mcharo, Masochi water Recources Ltd and Father Tim (CPPS Water Project), the existing subsurface and aquifer situation in Kibakwe should allow the continuous extraction of 4 m³ per hour of drinking water from each well which is drilled in the right place to a depth of 50 to 100 meters. For the target quantity of water (more later), the next step is to choose a final location for two new wells in the village which are far apart from another. This will require a hydrogeological expertise. During our visit in October 2013, Masochi Water Resources was commissioned to prepare the necessary expertise. Nonetheless, an expertise does not carry a guarantee that the wells will actually be able to produce the target quantity of water. Accordingly, when planning the financing of the project, it is necessary to put aside a reserve sum of money for up to 2 additional wells.

 

The location of the wells should solely be made according to technical aspects (high likelihood of finding enough water). If the chosen plots of land are not currently owned by the church, they must be purchased or leased to ensure that ownership of the wells is legally tied to the right to access the plot of land where the wells are located.

 

The planned daily production quantity from the two wells of 8 m³ per hour corresponds to approx. 200,000 litres of water per day. If you add this to the 40,000 litres per day from the existing spring capture pipe and subtract approx. 20 % to account for distribution losses and times when the pumps are not working due to temporary power cuts which are common in this area, this leads to a realistic future production of 200,000 litres water (200 m³) per day. This equates to 20 litres per person per day and corresponds to the originally envisaged target at the start of the project.

 

If you assume that the majority of the 200 m³ is consumed daily between 06:00 and 20:00 it is then necessary to be able to store the water which is produced during the remaining 10 hours of the day (approx. 80 m³). During our visit, it was not possible for us to determine the storage capacity of the two existing water towers and intermediate tanks and whether they could be made fit again for use in the future. In the unlikely case that at least one new water tower or storage tank is necessary, we have asked CPPS to make a suitable price quotation. Thomas Runge will investigate a possible solution to be provided by a sponsor consisting of a standard shipping container lined with plastic.

 

Following the availability of the hydro geological expertise, the CPPS Water Project (a construction and well-drilling company belonging to the Catholic order Society of the Precious Blood, Managing Director Father Tim), will submit as soon as possible an offer for a contract for all required construction and installation work. Installation work and materials should be listed separately. If the cost estimate appears plausible (not too expensive), CPPS should be awarded the contract for the construction work since CPPS / Father Tim already has extensive experience with drilling wells in this region and has an excellent reputation with our Tanzanian counterparts.

 

 1.4.        Future distribution network including expected water quantities

 

A central matter of the discussion with the village community[1] was the structure and organisation of the future distribution net.

 

According to the village community the future plan should allow for at least 70% of the water to be used for human consumption and the rest for livestock and irrigating vegetable gardens. If more water is available outside of the dry period, all three user groups can then receive more of it.

 

We made it clear to the village community that our support for the improvement of the drinking water situation in Kibakwe is absolutely dependent on whether a fair distribution of the water can be guaranteed in future, and that everyone in the village will receive enough water of drinking quality (for drinking and cooking and personal hygiene) in the dry season, too. On the one hand, the village community confirmed that there is an urgent need to reorganise and modify the existing water distribution network to ensure a better and more fair distribution of the water – even though this reorganisation will surely lead to some people loosing out in a few cases. On the other hand, it became clear during the discussions that the community does not yet believe that we will actually be able to provide the required quantity of water. Accordingly, the village community is not yet ready to make more far-reaching decisions on a reorganisation of the distribution network („first supply us with enough water – then we can start talking about distribution.“). This means that we need to proceed in two steps:

 

a)  In April 2014 when the rainy period has finished: Drill new wells and connect them immediately to the existing distribution network. If possible, use the existing water towers and storage tanks. If possible already during this first stage, construction of a new water tower and/or storage tank with a volume of 40 m³ (this decision should be made in the next few months). A rough initial estimate indicated that up to about 1000 m of additional piping will be necessary for connecting up to the distribution network / water tower / storage tank. The necessary investment for these items should already be included in the financial calculations (more accurate figures will become available when the final location of the two wells has been decided).

 

b)  When it is finally clear how much additional water will be available in future: Planning and optimisation of the distribution of water to the various usage groups and optimisation of the distribution network. To accomplish this step of the project, Thomas Runge and Hans Mönninghoff will travel to Tanzania again at the beginning of May 2014. If it turns out in future planning steps that the old distribution network is totally unsuitable for this purpose, approx. 3,000 m of new pipes will be necessary within the village to supply the entire area of the village. Further more, it is estimated that 20 water delivery points will be needed (water kiosks for supplying the public and connections to public buildings):

 

a)   The main public buildings: the two whole day schools, the medical clinic, the slaughterhouse and the ELCT guesthouse. Additional buildings can only be directly supplied with water to a limited extent following discussions with the village community. Since water with drinking water quality will continue to remain scarce in Kibakwe in the foreseeable future, buildings connected directly to the distribution network should not be fitted with „European style“ flushing toilets but should continue to use armatures and fittings which minimise water consumption.

 

b)   To supply the population: about 10 public “water kiosks” distributed around the village. With this model, which still needs to be discussed in the village community in more detail, each water kiosk will supply approx. 1,000 people and no one should have to travel more than approx. 200 m to reach a water kiosk. Since each household in Kibakwe consists on average of 6.5 persons, each of the water kiosks distributed around the village would supply approx. 150 households. If we initially assume that from the 200,000 litres which will be available daily in the dry season, 20% is for the public buildings and 50% for the water kiosks (the remaining 30% for cattle troughs and vegetable gardening / agriculture) , each of the 10 water kiosks - which supply 1,000 people each - will need to deliver at least 10,000 litres of water of drinking water daily. For each of these kiosks, the daily volume of 10,000 litres will be typically collected by the inhabitants over a period of 14 hours (from 06:00 – 20:00) using 500 buckets (commonly used 20 litres containers). This corresponds to about. 2 buckets per minute. Accordingly, in the dry season each typical 6 person household will be able to get at least three buckets of healthy drinking water per day from the public distribution network (10 litres per person and day). And they will be able to collect the water easily without the extremely long travelling and waiting times which are currently necessary.

 

The following shows the main figures from the above considerations in tabular form to assist future planning activities:

 

40,000 litres per day

Water quantity from the spring capture in the dry season

+ 200,000 litres per day

Water quantity from two new wells, each extracting 4 m³ per hour

-20%

Losses due to leaking pipes and power cuts

= 200,000 litres per day

Total available volume of drinking water

= 20 litres pro Tag per person

 

Of this

 

50% = 100,000 litres

= 10 litres per day and person

Water delivered to the population at the public water kiosks

20% = 40,000 litres per day

Water delivered to public buildings (schools, medical clinic, slaughterhouse, etc.)

30% = 60,000

Water delivered for livestock rearing and vegetable gardens / agriculture

 

 

Additional topic: construction work on the pipeline system: Excavation work for the pipeline system (excavating trenches and filling them in again) both during the first and the second construction phase should be carried out under the supervision of an experienced site manager (district water engineer or CPPS) by the local population in Kibakwe themselves. 50% of the pay for this work should be distributed among the workers without delay and the remaining 50% should be kept as a reserve to pay for future water bills for each of the families. Above all, this model allows the poorer families to build up some credit to pay for future water supplies.

 

 

  1. Social, legal and financial aspects

 

2.1. Project initiator and sources of finance

 

The project initiator is the Evangelical Lutheran Church Community St. Alexandi in Eldagsen. Eldagsen is a small town with 3,000 inhabitants 30 km South of Hannover in northern Germany. The church community has appointed project leadership to the water engineer Hans Mönninghoff and his colleague Thomas Runge, who is an engineer of municipal utilities and supplies.

 

Funding for the planning activities and initial investment for the wells and water distribution network will be solely provided by the church community of Eldagsen, which will receive the finances from the following sources:

  • Individual donations from about 190 (11/2013) private individuals and companies in the vicinity of Hanover resulting from a fundraising campaign;
  • A substantial donation from a private individual;
  • A grant from the German State of Lower Saxony;
  • Support received from the Bingo-Umweltlotterie (German lottery in Lower Saxony)
  • Support from the „Clean Water“ foundation of the Swiss company Georg Fischer;
  • Additional sponsors for the consultancy and training programme

Eng. Hans Mönninghoff and Eng. Thomas Runge are providing their expertise and project services free of charge. Ongoing financing of the operation, maintenance and replacement investments will come from the water usage charges which will be collected.

 

 2.2. Church partnership with Kibakwe

 

The project has resulted from the ongoing 25 years of church partnership between the Evangelical Lutheran Church District of South Hannover and the Wotta Church District (to which Kibakwe belongs). Over the last 15 years, this has resulted in a good functioning partnership between the community of the Evangelical Lutheran Church St. Alexandi in Eldagsen and the secondary school in Kibakwe. Inhabitants of Eldagsen are currently sponsoring more than 80 school children in Kibakwe and a school library is currently being sponsored too, resulting in a great deal of mutual confidence between members of the respective communities. In Tanzania, the local project management is being handled by the Superintendent of the Wotta church community, Pastor Alex Msaka, who is also pastor in Kibakwe. Our impression is that Pastor Msaka is well anchored in the community and during the meeting with the village community everyone agreed that he should lead the project water team (more about this later).

 

Since the local church communities and church in Tanzania do not have the legal capacity to head such a project, the formal project partner is the Diocese of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Tanzania (ELCT). The Bishop of the Diocese and all of the other church employees emphasise that they only want to serve as advisor to the local church community and carry out the legally necessary activities – all decisions concerning the content and technical details of the project should be made by the local church authorities and/or Pastor Msaka. After constructing the wells and maybe new water towers and intermediate tanks as well, the Diocese will then be the legal owner. The Diocese will apply as soon as possible for approval to the water authorities in Dodoma to drill the wells and extract the water.

 

According to the German donation laws, the church community of Eldagsen must guarantee the sponsors (private sponsors and institutions who authorised grants) that the money collected is used solely for charitable purposes and/or in accordance with the conditions set out in the grant agreement. To this end, it is necessary to draw up a project partnership agreement with the Tanzanian Diocese. It appears that there are no model examples for such an agreement in Dodoma. In past projects it appears to have been common practice that the Diocese had a relatively free hand in how to spend the money. We emphasised during discussions that we want to regulate the joint responsibilities in a written contract and that we want above all that all of the cash flows in the project will be transferred directly from the Eldagsen church community to the executing companies (typically 50% on signing each construction/service contract and the remaining 50% after receiving proof that the services specified in the contract have been fully provided).

 

It was obvious to the employees of the Diocese that the contract should also specify that the drinking water distribution should take place over a pipe network which is entirely owned by the District Council of Mpwapwa. It was also agreed that the draft version of the partnership contract should be prepared in Eldagsen and then finalised with the Diocese by the end of 2013.

 

 2.3. Political situation

 

Both the Tanzanian Member of Parliament (and Vice-Minister) responsible for Kibakwe and the political chief of the District of Mpwapwa (to which Kibakwe belongs), District-Commissioner Christopher Kangoya emphasise that they are fully committed to the project. Quote from Mr. Simbachawene „if the project is successful then this is my success in the next election 2015 as well.“

 

Since optimisation of the water distribution also includes construction work on the existing pipeline network (which will be financed by the Eldagsen church community), it is also necessary to negotiate and sign a contract with the Kibakwe municipality who own the existing network. The political head of the local borough ("Ward Executive Officer") Mr. Charles Petu and the Village Executive Officer Mr. John Charles both made very positive comments about the project. The chief of the actual village of Kibakwe, Mr. Seth Senyagwa, was away on a trip and could not attend (the title of Mayor is apparently not used in that region).

 

 2.4. Relevant local authorities

 

                 Tanzania is subdivided officially into six water areas. The water authority responsible for Kibakwe (Wami-Ruvu Basin Office) is located in Dodoma and is the approval authority for groundwater extraction. Ms. Eldar Mcharo, Head of Department at the water authority for questions relating to groundwater, made very positive comments about the project and said that it was almost certain that approval would be granted to extract groundwater provided that the water quality is suitable for use as drinking water. Local specialists have indicated that this is fairly certain and the quality will be tested anyway after drilling the wells.

 

The regional water authority is the District Council of Mpwapwa. The district has about 330.000 inhabitants and is responsible for continuous monitoring of the quality of the drinking water. The district council has an important function in the structure of the COSWO, as described in section 2.6 below.

 

The local authority of Kibakwe is concerned as the owner of the streets where the distribution network is located. During discussions with the village community, some critical voices were raised about the district water authority, above all because a deep well was drilled in Kibakwe some years ago under unexplained circumstances by a company from Dar es Salam. The well was not completed and does not deliver drinking water. Nonetheless, it is obviously meaningful and necessary to cooperate successfully with the district authority.

 

 2.5. Local organisational structure during the planning and construction phases

 

This chapter and the next one are disproportionately long compared to previous chapters. This is because experience with other development projects has shown that these topics have central significance for the sustainable success of the project and the details still need to be discussed carefully.

 

In future, the groundwater extracted from new wells by the church and the spring capture water provided by the municipality will be jointly distributed through the distribution network belonging to the municipality. This requires a new organisational structure to be created, since the previous local water committee is not suitable for this purpose.

 

During the discussions in Kibakwe, mutual agreement was reached that a Water Project Team should be formed as soon as possible for the planning and construction phase. The water project team will be responsible for reaching decisions on technical aspects of the distribution network, the future organisation of the water distribution and the method to use to collect water fees from the consumers. The water project team should include representatives from all important bodies in the village (local political leadership, municipal authority, authorities from both Christian and Muslim religious groups, the two school directors, representatives from larger water consumers such as the slaughterhouse and large farms). The first meeting should take place in November 2013 and Pastor Msaka and our consultant Michael Onesimo will coordinate the grounding process and following discussions. Recommendations from the district administration should be included in the planning.

 

2.6. Organisational structure and ongoing financing during the operative phase

 

When the new water distribution system is operative, if 10,000 inhabitants are being supplied with water according to the Tanzanian water legislation two different organizational structures are possible:

a)  Organisation as a water Supply Company („Utility“). Utilities are monitored by the government energy and water regulation authority EWURA in Dar Es Salaam. We do not want to implement this solution due to the high bureaucratic structures involved.

b) Organisation as a „Community Water and Sanitation Organisation“ (COWSO). This legal construction is available for smaller supply and waste disposal organisations and is very suitable in our case because it involves all affected interest groups. Further more, the formal structures are clearly defined in the Tanzanian water legislation and thus do not need to be discussed again. The COSWO is responsible for decisions concerning the operation of the water extraction equipment and distribution network and has a decision-making body with representatives from the political community, the „water suppliers“ (above all the Lutheran church) and all relevant water consumers. 85% of the members must be local people, 15% from the district water authority which monitors the correct operation of the COSWO. 60% of the seats in the COSWO decision-making body must be women. COSWO can appoint an „agent“ for the actual operation of the water extraction and distribution process.

 

Before the COSWO organisation becomes operational, the water project team should also discuss and agree on the future collection of water fees. Running costs in the future will be much higher than today, above all due to electricity costs, maintenance of and additional investments for the pumps, operation of the distribution network and collection of the water fees. The additional costs must be met by the sale of water. Exact calculation of the various cost positions (payment for the existing water technician and maybe an additional person to look after the pumps, maintenance work, financial reserves for renewing equipment) still need to be decided by the water project team.

 

According to the experience of other Tanzanian drinking water suppliers, the cost of the water to the consumers will be at least one Tanzanian Shilling (TSh) per litre of drinking water, corresponding to 20 TSh per bucket (20 litre canister) or 1,800 TSh (= 0.84 Euro) per month for a typical 6-person family which consumes 3 buckets of water a day. According to our Tanzanian counterparts this sum is also affordable for poorer households too.

 

All water kiosks will be fitted with water meters which will be used to calculate the water fees. At a price of 1 TSh per litre of water, this will result in a total daily sum of 200,000 TSh (= 93 Euro) or 6 mio. TSh per month (= 2,800 Euro). Whereas such sums of money are not unusual in Germany, it is important to remember that the daily amount of 200,000 TSh correspond for example to the monthly pay of a teacher.

 

Collecting fees from the directly connected public institutions is structurally relatively simple: the consumed water quantity will be read from the water meter once a month, immediate payment is required by bank transfer, and the water supply will be cut off if the money is not received immediately. It is much more difficult to collect payments for water sold to private households at the water kiosks. Three main problems could arise:

a)   The portion of the fees intended for maintenance and replacement investments does not end up on the secure bank account for financial reserves but is used for other purposes (e.g. hospital costs for a family member, a typical procedure in Tanzania).

b)  Water consumers do not pay because money is currently not  available and they need a credit, e.g. until the next harvest.

c)   Since there is currently no bank in Kibakwe (this is planned in the future), there is a risk that the collected money will be lost to robbers.

 

In addition, there is a risk that the electricity fees are not transferred on time to the electricity supply utility (in Tanzania, electricity from the public utility must be prepaid), resulting in the water supply stopping due to the electrical power being cut off.

 

In order to solve the above problems a model project has been devised which is unique in Tanzania. It consists of the following three modules, which however still need to be discussed in detail by the water project team:

 

a)   In discussion with the Secretary-General of the Diocese, the suggestion was made that the church and the political community should jointly choose a reliable „agent“ who has a contractual agreement with the COSWO for operation of the pumps and the water distribution network and is responsible for the collection and further disposition of the water fees. A possible „agent“ could be CPPS/Father Tim. The agent should employ a woman at each of the approx. 10 water kiosks to register the number of buckets of water taken by each of the families and to collect the water fees (because currently women already carry the main responsibility for providing the drinking water in Kibakwe). The agent will also employ the technician responsible for maintenance and ensure payment of the electricity required by the pumps and account for the financial reserves necessary for maintenance costs and replacement investments. Once a month, a team consisting of three members of COSWO (one representative from the municipality, a second representative from the church and a third representative from the agent) will take readings from all water meters and will check the water fees received, the ongoing payments made and the financial reserves.

 

b)    Our development consultant Michael Onesimo from Tanzania and Mpwapwa district will prepare a concept of how the people responsible for each of the water kiosks can collect all of the water fees from the families in the respective part of the village using various convenient methods, including the mobile phone banking system which is already widely used in Tanzania. There are 22 million people with phones in Tanzania. Mobile-based payment is the single most convenient method of payment in Tanzania, especially in rural settings. Of the 45 million people in Tanzania, nearly every family has at least one mobile phone..

 

c)    Hidde Bekaan, who is lecturing on microfinance at Uganda Marty University, will prepare a concept of how families can pay their water fees through a microcredit arrangement until future earnings have arrived. This will off-set income seasonality effects among rural inhabitants. Most people, according to research in February 2013 have more income in the June-October than in December-April due to the agricultural calendar. .

 

The project water team also need to decide whether the water fees should solely be calculated to cover costs or whether a slight profit should be made which could then be used for village development projects. One proposal is that a slight profit should be made and this should be split 50/50 between the municipality and the church, which can then use it for village development projects and local social activities.

 

One more aspect: In order to provide a bridge during the starting phase until the water fee collection system is fully operational, the most important operating costs during the first three months (4,000 Euro at an estimated 0.5 TSH/l) should be pre-financed from the project budget as a loan to the COSWO and/or the „agent“. This loan should be repaid as soon as the water fee collection system is fully operational and can then flow into the Consultancy and Training programme subproject.

 

 2.7. Consultancy and training programme

 

A consultancy with the aim of engaging the community to develop systems that everyone needs and benefits from (consultation with stakeholders in Kibakwe), capacity building of the community and particularly the water user association and water kiosk management and coordinating the relationship between the district council, Kibakwe stakeholders and the German partners. The capacity building programme is planned as a special module of the water project. Discussions are taking place between the GIZ (Gesellschaft für internationale Zusammenarbeit, German Society for International Cooperation), Michael Onesimo and CPPS above all about the following modules:

  • Bringing lessons (experience and expertise) from the existing GIZ-supported project „Water and Sanitary in Schools“ to the primary and secondary schools in Kibakwe using bio-latrines. Experience from the Nexus programme of the German Ministry of Economic Cooperation (BMZ), another German-supported project, is expected to contribute highly to the School WASH initiative.
  • Integration of the existing GIZ project „Water and Sanitary in Hospitals“ into an advisory programme for the local medical clinic. GIZ is already working with various municipalities in Tanzania.
  • An advisory programme on the effective use of water in horticulture gardening and agriculture using effective technologies that conserve the environment and water.

 

A suitable product description including calculation of costs and financing should be available before the end of 2013.

 

3. Future schedules and deadlines

 

 Nov./Dez. 2013           

 

Final applications for grants to Institutes in Germany

First meeting of the new water project team

Development of a partnership contract with the Diocese of Dodoma
Presentation of the hydrogeological expertise
Presentation of a cost estimate from CPPS
                                   
January 2014            

 

Decision of the German institutes on the grants; If the overall financing of the project is ensured by this date through corresponding grant agreements, awarding the construction contract to CPPS with a 50% advance payment

Application and permission between the Diozese and Wami Ruwu Basin Office about the drilling and operation of the well
 
until April 2014          

 

Development of a partnership contract with the     
Village of Kibakwe

April 2014

 

Drilling of the wells and connecting up to the existing water distribution network
 
May 2014                  

 

Second planning visit to Tanzania (inspection of the work carried out to date and planning the optimisation of the water distribution network)
 
2nd part of 2014         

 

Constructional optimisation of the water distribution network      

End of 2014              

 

Third visit to Tanzania at the conclusion of the construction phase and the start of the operational phase of the project

 

 

Project Coordination in Germany

 

                                Hans Mönninghoff

Civil-Engineer for Water and Energy

Chief Executive of the City of Hannover

(retired)

Nordstr. 47

31832 Springe-Eldagsen

+49-5044/8031

+49-151/23565873

moenninghoff@htp-tel.de

 

Thomas Runge

Plumbing-Engineer

Nordstr. 34

31832 Springe-Eldagsen

+49-5044/4482

+49-171/2206892

Thomas.Runge@georgfischer.com

 

in Tanzania            

 

Reverend Alex Msaka

District-Pastor of Wotta-District

+255/754604542 

and  +255/788604542                        
              
revalexmsaka@gmail.com

 

[1]When the term „village community“ is used in this report, this refers to two extensive discussions with about. 20 people from Kibakwe (local authority, Church Council, members of the local water committee, important people with influence such as the directors of the two schools, etc.).

Aktueller Spendenstand:

Von ca. 200 Personen und Firmen sind mehr als 27.000 Euro eingegangen!

 

 

Am 14.05.2014 stieß die erste Bohrung auf Wasser!
Unterschrift unter den Kooperationsvertrag
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© Hans Mönninghoff